Mini Wiki 8 – Mitosis

In this mini wiki we’re going to step away from what the cell is made up of and look a little at mitosis! Otherwise known as cell division, it how we grow and get bigger, its also how we can mend ourselves. Yeah it’s pretty cool. Hopefully this guide will make it super simple for you. We looked at what happens before mitosis in last times mini wiki so if you want catch up on that one or any other wiki click here.

38-mitotis-phases

Whats the definition of mitosis?

“a type of cell division that results in two daughter cells each having the same number and kind of chromosomes as the parent nucleus, typical of ordinary tissue growth.”

What is mitosis used for?

As the definition suggests mitosis is the process of dividing the cell into two cells that are identical.

What are the stages of mitosis?

There are 5 main stages of mitosis. At each stage different events take place to let the cell divide. Remember before all this occurs the genetic material has already been duplicated in interphase.

Prophase

Prophase is the longest stage of the mitotic cycle. It starts with the nucleus membrane breaking down. Then the centromeres go to each end of the cell and create the mitotic spindle. This works like a web of long thin fibres. The chromosomes condense into compact structures. So it looks like this:

Image result for prophase

Prometaphase

In the centre of each chromosome they have a centromere and during prometaphase the spindle fibres attach on to the centromere. There the chromosomes are led to the centre of the cell.

Metaphase

This is when all the chromosomes line themselves up along the metaphase plate. This is the centre of the cell.

Image result for metaphase

Anaphase

This is the shortest stage when the two sister parts of the chromosome are pulled apart to each end of the cell. This means each new daughter cell has exactly the same genetic material.

Image result for anaphase

Telophase

This is like the reverse stage of prophase. The nuclear membrane reforms around the two sets of DNA. The spindle fibres disintegrate and chromosomes start to uncoil.

Image result for telophase

What happens after mitosis?

After mitosis you have cytokinesis where the cells becomes two daughter cells.  In plants a cell plate forms along the line of the metaphase plate; in animals there is a constriction of the cytoplasm. The cell then goes back into the interphase stage.

Image result for cytokinesis

5 things I need to know about mitosis!

  1. Mitosis is a type of cell division that creates two identical cells.
  2. There are 5 stages to mitosis. They are prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase.
  3. The genetic material condenses to form chromosomes so its easier to move around
  4. The centromere creates the mitotic spindle to move the chromosomes around.
  5. After telophase the cell divides in a stage called cytokinesis

Hope this guide has been easy and quick for you to use! If you want to see more mini wikis click here.

Sources

American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition. Copyright © 2011 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.

University of Leicester. (Unknown). The cell cycle, mitosis and meiosis. Available: http://www2.le.ac.uk/departments/genetics/vgec/schoolscolleges/topics/cellcycle-mitosis-meiosis. Last accessed 1st November 2016.

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